ASSALAMUALAIKUM WARAHMATULLAHI WABARAKAATUH.. (^_~)
I hope everyone is as fine as I am these recent days. This week’s lecture is delivered by Mrs.Hazrati; which is entitled “Designing Media and Instruction”. It is all about the procedures of designing proper instructional media according to the students’ needs. To relate this week’s lesson with the one from the previous class, Mrs.hazrati does some recaps on the ASSURE and Dick and Carey Model and discuss with us in which phase we are now according to cycle in the models. Regarding this, since we’re currently in the pre-production stage of the video-making, I suppose that we are now in the phases of “Stating the Objectives” and “Selecting Materials and Media” as set in the ASSURE model. These are the phases where we set our goals for making the video and then find and select materials that conform to our needs of realizing the stated objectives.
Mrs.Hazrati proceeds this week’s lesson with the concept and the basic processes required in designing media for instructions. According to Dick and Reise in 1989, the designing of instruction can be described as a systematic process of designing, developing, implementing and evaluating instruction; while according to Richey (1989) it is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development, evaluation, and maintenance of situations which facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter. Based on these two stances, I think it’s reasonable for me to deduce that the designing of instructional media is actually a mechanism or technique used to design and develop media which are meant for instructions, and implement it in teaching and learning processes; and then evaluate how does it affect the students’ learning especially in the aspects of facilitating their understanding and nourishing their interests towards the taught lesson. Before designing an instructional media, we first have to identify the problems in order to determine the best solution. Initially, I get so confused listening to this first step from Mrs.Hazrati. I wonder where the problems come from when we have not designed anything yet. Then I just personally conclude that the identification of “problems” means the identification of issues, requirements, and features that should be infused in the media that is to be designed in order that it will give the learning facilitation expected by teachers. Apart from that, since this system commences with the problem identification, I think it may also be used for improving the existing media that is found ineffective and thus prompting teachers to look for the shortcomings or problems contained in it. -However this is just my personal point of view, so anyone please do correct me if I’m literally strayed (^_^) – . There are two methods teachers may employ in the identification of problems; which are the “needs assessment/ analysis” and the “goal analysis”. The needs assessment encompasses all of the activities of collecting information about the students’ learning needs, interests, wishes, and desires using questionnaires, test scores and interviews; that are carried out throughout the 4 phases of execution which are the planning, collecting data, data analysis, and final report documentation stages. In reverse, the goal analysis which functions as an alternative option to the needs analysis possesses majorly different execution phases of the former one, which include the steps of identifying aims, setting goals, refining goals, ranking goals, re-refining goals, and making a final ranking. Both of these methods actually function in different situations; and hence causing them to involve the different amount of cost, time and target audience. The needs assessment method is employed when the problem is not identified; a condition that causes a large amount of time and money to be used since it has to involve a large target audience in the study. Contrarily, the goal analysis approach is used when the problem is already identified and valid; requiring teachers to only contribute minimal time and cost as the research conducted will involve just a few individuals. After conducting either one of the analysis, it is highly suggested that teachers compile a final report of the study that contains the summary of purposes, processes, and results presented in the form of table and narratives, and recommendations or further action to be taken made based on the finding. I believe that compiling a final conclusive report is crucial since it will help teachers to figure out the solutions for the problems or improvements for the lacking parts of the media by looking through, analyze, and deduce from the well-organized gained data. The next big step in the designing of instructional media after executing the needs assessment or goal analysis is the performance assessment. For me, the performance assessment is basically the evaluation done on the effectiveness or success of implementation of the designed media in teaching and learning processes, as well as the discovering of its deficiency so that the implementation technique or the media itself may be improved. Just like the two methods, this particular assessment also needs to be started with the identification of the problems latent in the performance. As the matter of fact, teachers usually find their performances problematic because of the lack of knowledge or skills, insufficiency of motivation or incentive, and the factors of the environment, management, and interpersonal relations among students and instructors.
In designing an instructional media, it is good for teachers to get to know what it really is, what it does/contributes to the learning and teaching processes, and the importance of using it. This is why I think Mrs.Hazrati includes this in her lecture. “Media” actually comes from the Latin word “medium” that means “between”. According to this, we may describe “media” as a means/channel for communication which include anything that carries messages and information between a source and a receiver. In a more precise definition, a “media” according to Mrs.Hazrati is a medium that can be used to deliver message from the sender to the receiver in a manner that can stimulate thought, feeling, interest and student’s attention which later occur in learning process; while according to Heinich(2002), if the media convey a message about instruction, then that media can be called as instruction’s media. There are miscellaneous functions of media in instructions; which are the reason why it is highly recommended for teachers nowadays. These include exposing technology to students, infusing innovation in instruction, attracting students’ interest through various ICT activities, delivering interesting and entertaining teaching and learning, promoting meaningful learning in students, enabling clearer and more effective explanation, as well as integrating the ICT elements in subject matters. Other than that, in preparing instructional media, there are 8 steps teachers have to undergo as presented in the following diagram;
To make it easier to remember, I have created a simple acronym for the whole complete steps, which is
“ IOSAm VIER ” . Below is how each letter of the acronym represents each step;
I – initiating IDEA
O – defining OBJECTIVE
S – analyzing STUDENTS
Am – gathering and ARRANGING Materials
V – converting ideas into VISUAL
I – planning students’ INVOLVEMENT
E – EVALUATING plan
R – REVISING plan
Apart from following each step discussed above, it is also important for teachers to ensure that the media prepared possess the characteristics as shown below;
Just like the media preparation steps explained previously, I have also created a simple acronym for this particular set of media characteristics with the purpose of easy memorization. Kindly check the acronym below;
Mo – Movement
Vi – Visual
Co – Colour
M – Mobility
E – Editability
L – enhancement of student’s Learning.
Other than these 6 characteristics, Mrs.Hazrati also highly recommends the designed instructional media to have the element of interactivity. To help us understand better, she further discusses with us the features that make a media like videos and animations very interactive; and later takes the “Dora The Explorer” cartoon series as one of the examples of a video that encourage audience to interact with the presentation while watching it. Assuming everyone knows, Mrs.Hazrati does not further explain why she chooses the cartoon series as the example. As a matter of fact, everyone does, except for Pei Si who claims she never watches the series. Laughing, I then help her find the series on YouTube, and watch it with her for a couple of minutes; and it happens that Pei Si likes it! What a cute Pei si! (^_^) . “Dora The Explorer”, though merely a children cartoon series with very simple storylines, it does possess high interactivity element imparted through the characters and also the dialogues. In the story, the main character whose name is Dora, travels to different places to explore it. Throughout the mission of reaching her destination, Dora invites/encourages audience to join her and help her find clues to go through the right routes by asking questions to the “imaginary” audience. Other than “Dora The Explorer” there are also several other cartoon series I’ve known using the similar method of gaining audience’s participation; such as the “Blues Clues” which invites audience to get involve in simple investigation missions, and the “Go Diego Go!” which encourages watchers to join the adventurous rescue mission to save the animals. I personally think this technique is brilliant and very much effective in obtaining interactions from audience as I’m used to seeing my little brother and sister talking to the TV while watching these cartoon series! (^_^) . In this kind of videos, audience’s immediate reactions are initiated through the questions asked, interrogatory remarks, pauses which are meant for allowing audiences’ responses, and even the clickable icons provided on the screen.
To witness all of these creative video making techniques for yourself, kindly enjoy watching the three cartoon series I’ve mentioned earlier below;
DORA THE EXPLORER:
GO DIEGO GO!:
Before ending her instruction Mrs.Hazrati manages to explain a little bit on the classifications of media. I think this is important since they are countless types of media existing presently and hence knowing how to classify it may help us to easily describe any media we’re referring to according to its category. I’ve printed a chart containing categories of media from the lecture notes and hand-write all of the examples using coloured pens at each of the categories. Kindly check it out below; (^_^);
To conclude the whole topic as well as prove the significance of being knowledgeable in the designing of media and instruction, Mrs.Hazrati lists out some of the advantages gained from the integration of instructional media in teaching. They include improving the effectiveness of teaching and learning process, saving time, stimulating student’s interest, providing various teaching methods, enriching student’s experience, and producing more efficient teaching materials. However, the usage of instructional media may become destructive if it is not properly planned and designed; and it is usually in consequence of the improper selection, preparation and implementation of the media. The employment of this unplanned media in instruction will then cause various undesirable effects such as boredom and non-meaningful learning resulting in students; and thus making the media unusable, nugatory, and wasted.
The lecture session is subsequently continued by Mr.Helmi, yet with his own different topic – the video production- . It is a pleasing surprise that this time Mr.Helmi has come together with a slideshow containing the overall content of the video production module. This is very much conducive compared to using merely blog pages during instruction session as the PowerPoint allows us to view the whole thing in one complete document instead of having to switching the blog pages to see different parts of the topic. For this week’s lecture Mr.Helmi starts by recapping the phases of the video production learnt in the previous class and emphasizes on the pre-production part, the first phase of producing a video that contains mainly the planning of it. Before focusing on the pre-production phase, Mr.Helmi allows us to questions out on anything we’re not clear about. Like always, I use this golden opportunity to ask him about the mobile augmented reality technology, which I do not fully apprehend in the previous class – I believe so does every of my classmate (^_^) – . To make us understand how the mobile augmented reality works, he searches on the YouTube a video of a man using the technology in a city street and projects it onto the widescreen for our view. Plus, Mr.Helmi himself then uses the augmented reality application from his iPad to track on the places existing in the UKM campus and shows it to us. We are literally amazed to see various icons representating the online pages related to the scanned spot (UKM) popping out on the tablet screen. I now understand how the mobile augmented reality functions. Via this technology we will be able to automatically and directly gain the sources from the internet that are associated to the outside real world by just pointing our internet-connected devices to the target location, scan it, and wait for the “magical” dialogue boxes to appear. For example, if we are now in the Kuala Lumpur Merdeka Square, we can use the mobile augmented reality application to know more about the place by just scanning it using our device and a few seconds later the screen will be filled with the diverse icons showing information regarding the scanned Merdeka Square; including its neighbouring places like the Old High Court and the Kuala Lumpur City Hall, the map of the place, the exciting events which used to happen there, and many other interesting information related to it. Now that I’ve understood how and what it works for, I find this technology to be very useful as it extends the “reality” we are in to a wider scope through the miscellaneous info and guidance about the location. Besides, I think its function simply justifies the “augmented” word from its name which means “being made into greater size or value”.
MOBILE AUGMENTED REALITY
Now let’s go back to the discussions on the pre-production phase. The first step in planning a video is to select the messages of the video, its genre, and the audience which are targeted to watch the video. All of the elements are actually related to each other as the genre has to be appropriate to create the mood that will aid the delivery of the message to the target audience. The next thing to do is to plan/determine the involvement of actors in the video, the time and place for the materials to be shot or recorded, and the list of photography and sound equipments that may be required.
Talking about the “involvement of actors” in a video, I have actually raised my hand and asked Dr.Rosseni the appropriate number of actors that should be involved in order to produce an excellent video. She replies that there’s no such “appropriate number of actor thing” in making videos. When I ask her why, she simply relates it to the parody videos made by “Mat Lutfi” as an instance. Now I know that how many actors we involve in our video will not necessarily determine its effectiveness. It is the CREATIVITY of the video producer that matters. To illustrate, “Mat Lutfi” only uses himself as the actor in his videos yet still manages to play different roles and characters and successfully impart the intended messages to the audience. For everyone’s reference, I’ve put a video by “Mat Lutfi” below. Just observe how he brilliantly changes into different characters yet still maintain the comprehensibility of the video.
The third step in the pre-production phase is to figure out the resources of getting the insight, information and ideas to be infused into the video. As for our group, Dayang, Vanessa , Pei Si and I have discussed and decided that our major sources would be our personal experiences and knowledge, interviews on people we know, and the internet websites like YouTube, Facebook, blogs and such. Our personal experiences will contribute a lot in the making of the video since lots of materials meant to be included are from our hometown backgrounds; and it is believed that if you narrate about something from your own knowledge, it will be much more effective. Other than that, it is also necessary for us at this step to think about what emotions do we want to bring to the audience when they watch our video; and I think this is closely associated to the message we intend to deliver to the audience. For instance, since our group is planning to produce a video that portrays the serenity and exquisiteness of the places in Malaysia especially the islands and coasts, the mood that’s supposed to conquer the audience should be the relaxing, pleasing, exciting, and soothing ones. Moving to the next step, this is the time when we have to have in our vision of how the scenes of the videos should appear, including determining the key scenes and in what arrangement they should be in order to attract the audience. After a lot of brainstorming, it is finally the moment of transferring the gist of all the ideas into a story board. For this particular task, Dayang and Vanessa function as the director of planning which scenes to sketch; and Pei Si works on the sketching and drawing; while I take the responsibility to write the description of the whole storyboard; which I assume as some sort of script or storyline writing. For the storyboard sketching, Mr.Helmi suggests us to use the application available on the iPad. Since we’re not familiar with it, we just play around with the iPad by clicking various icons and trying everyr of the functional buttons, just to see how they work. It’s so funny indeed especially when it comes to my turn of using it. I definitely have no idea how to draw on the iPad screen, yet Vanessa generously help me with it. Anyways, using the iPad storyboard application is somewhat only a fun practice since we decided to sketch our storyboard manually on the paper instead. Moreover, we are only allowed to use the iPad for a limited period since we have to share it with other groups; leading to the time insufficiency for us to finish our storyboard using the digital tablet.
All of the ideas expressed and the complete planning made are then recorded on our company blog page, inclusive of our adorably-drawn storyboard as seen in the “print screen” images below;
You may also take a clearer look at the storyboard, its description, and our detailed out planning on our blog; by clicking on the following URLs:
VIDEO PRODUCTION PLANNING:
STORYBOARD + DESCRIPTION:
Only at the end of the lecture session Dr.Rosseni intervenes to sum up this week’s lecture. She reminds us to finish the story board and the planning outline, and then jumps into the question and answer slot. I take the opportunity to ask Dr.Rosseni for the list of the criteria she wants us to have in the video and also the aspects that shall be evaluated. As nice as always, she promises to prepare that for us. It relieves me since all this times I’ve been wondering what our video should actually focus on and what characteristics it should have in order that it obtains the maximal scores. Thus, the list of expected criteria given will definitely guide us to make our video as satisfying and excellent as it could be! (^_^)
I can say that this week’s lecture is the best lecture amongst all of the previous lectures we’ve had. The collaborative teaching delivered by Dr.Rosseni, Mrs.Hazrati, and Mr.Helmi successfully aids our meaningful learning through the varieties of explanation and efficiently distributed content delivery by each instructor. This is very much evident in the part when Mrs.Hazrati assists Mr.helmi to explain to us about the mobile augmented reality and the moment when Dr.Rosseni helps Mr.Helmi to summarize the whole lesson. Dr.Rosseni even works together with Mr.Helmi and Mrs.Hazrati to answer our abundant questions. I’m highly on the opinion that a collaborated teaching like this really works especially for a long lesson as it promotes better understanding on the lesson, saves time, as well as avoids students from getting mentally weary. Like Dr.Rosseni always says, we are truly lucky to have three teachers at the same time; and to all my SENSEIs, you’re the BEST ones!!! (^_^) . Apart from that, I’d really like to remark that Mr.Helmi has really improved his teaching delivery this time as he comes up very much prepared with his teaching aids(especially the PowerPoint slides), clearly and orderly imparts his explanation from topics to subtopics, and manages to give examples that makes us really understand a complex issue, just like the mobile augmented reality part. The most important thing of all, I could conceive his lecture for this week much much better than the last time!(^_^) . For instance, from his lecture provided this week, Mr.Helmi has managed to make it very clear to me and make me realize that the aim of learning and mastering the video production module is to enable us to design and develop our own video to be integrated in our teaching in future. Plus, the introduction to this module is also with the purpose of exposing is to the the current video, mobile and web 3.0 technologies. Furthermore, another thing I love about this class is that it always engages us in the group tasks; giving us the chance to nourish our teamwork along with strengthening our friendship. However, to get the group tasking much more effective and successful, I think that there should be more iPads provided so that each group will not have to share and may use the device fully until the class ends; instead of having to be interrupted while busy using it to finish the tasks. I also think it will be better if the usage of the storyboard-sketching application from the iPad is explained further and its steps being demonstrated since it is in fact quite complicated for us as we’re not really familiar with the device.
Overall, I think we’ve had a very exciting class this week. The best thing of all is the interactive question and answer session at the end of the class which unravels lots of my unclarity and confusions. I know that this time my reflection is quite lengthy, but I just can’t help making it short because everytime I want to stop writing, there’s always something to add in coming across my mind. I guess it’s maybe because I’ve gained substantially from this week’s class. So, a billion thanks to all of our instructors for such an informative lecture! I hope everyone would enjoy reading this no matter how wordy it is; since it contains lots of valuable things. (^_^).